Emadi, Cameron” Comments

  1. Kimberly Peter Kimberly Peter

    Hi Cameron,

    I find the research you are doing very interesting. I was wondering if you could expand on what is presented on your poster.
    1. Can you provide more details about how Uwater was estimated and the significance of this value?
    2. How could this research be used by stake holders?


  2. Timothy Bonner Timothy Bonner

    Making sure that I understand, U-water becomes the estimate used in stream crossing designs, correct? Ucrit for GRM at 22.5°C (from figure 1) is about 45 cm/s, yet U-water is >100 cm/s. So road crossing designs are deemed okay if a fish can traverse using less than a stress response but higher than their Ucrit? Why not set road crossing design at Ucrit or less?

  3. Cameron Emadi Cameron Emadi

    Question 1:
    Hello and thank you for your interest. For our estimation of Uwater we first measured Umax (maximum swimming speed). To measure this, we performed tests under the same temperatures as Ucrit. We placed the fish in a round tank and allowed the fish to move freely for at least 15 min before inducing an escape response using a mechanical stimulus. We repeated this three times per fish and recorded the responses using a camera. The recordings were processed using a tracking software called Lolitrack. This allowed us to generate the values for Umax in (cm/s). To calculate Uwater we used the equation Uwater=Umax-0.75Ucrit (Tudorache et al. 2008). In combining Ucrit with Umax we create a more realistic assessment of the likely overall swimming capacity of fishes in a natural environment. The utilization of Uwater in stream crossing design or barrier prioritization would help to inform decision-makers that are trying to protect local fish species in a more informative way than other physiological data as it encompasses both sustained aerobic and anaerobic burst swimming in achieving a sufficient ground speed necessary to pass through a given flow.

    Question 2:
    Fair question. It’s been well documented that measuring Ucrit in swim tunnels very likely underestimates a fishes true swimming capacity (or maximum ground speed), which is a function of both anaerobic and anaerobic swimming (some of the latter is likely captured at high speeds during a Ucrit test, but confinement within the swim tunnel is believed to restrict the burst, anaerobic component for achieving maximum ground speeds, which is why we measure Umax separately). Ucrit may well be the safest and most conservative approach, which we would certainly encourage decision-makers to consider, but we feel it’s also important to present what we believe to be the most accurate assessment of a fish’s true overall swimming capacity.

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